The New Organon: True Directions Concerning the Interpretation of Nature Francis Bacon

ISBN: 9781502309327

Published: September 8th 2014

Paperback

144 pages


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The New Organon: True Directions Concerning the Interpretation of Nature  by  Francis Bacon

The New Organon: True Directions Concerning the Interpretation of Nature by Francis Bacon
September 8th 2014 | Paperback | PDF, EPUB, FB2, DjVu, audiobook, mp3, ZIP | 144 pages | ISBN: 9781502309327 | 3.11 Mb

The New Organon or True Directions concerning the interpretation of Nature by Francis Bacon. The Novum Organum, full original title Novum Organum Scientiarum, is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620. The titleMoreThe New Organon or True Directions concerning the interpretation of Nature by Francis Bacon. The Novum Organum, full original title Novum Organum Scientiarum, is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620.

The title translates as new instrument, i.e. new instrument of science. This is a reference to Aristotles work Organon, which was his treatise on logic and syllogism. In Novum Organum, Bacon details a new system of logic he believes to be superior to the old ways of syllogism. This is now known as the Baconian method. For Bacon, finding the essence of a thing was a simple process of reduction, and the use of inductive reasoning.

In finding the cause of a phenomenal nature such as heat, one must list all of the situations where heat is found. Then another list should be drawn up, listing situations that are similar to those of the first list except for the lack of heat. A third table lists situations where heat can vary.

The form nature, or cause, of heat must be that which is common to all instances in the first table, is lacking from all instances of the second table and varies by degree in instances of the third table. The title page of Novum Organum depicts a galleon passing between the mythical Pillars of Hercules that stand either side of the Strait of Gibraltar, marking the exit from the well-charted waters of the Mediterranean into the Atlantic Ocean. The Pillars, as the boundary of the Mediterranean, have been smashed through opening a new world for exploration.

Bacon hopes that empirical investigation will, similarly, smash the old scientific ideas and lead to greater understanding of the world and heavens. The Latin tag across the bottom (Multi pertransibunt & augebitur scientia) is taken from Daniel 12:4. It means: Many will travel and knowledge will be increased. Those who have taken upon them to lay down the law of nature as a thing already searched out and understood, whether they have spoken in simple assurance or professional affectation, have therein done philosophy and the sciences great injury. For as they have been successful in inducing belief, so they have been effective in quenching and stopping inquiry- and have done more harm by spoiling and putting an end to other mens efforts than good by their own.

Those on the other hand who have taken a contrary course, and asserted that absolutely nothing can be known - whether it were from hatred of the ancient sophists, or from uncertainty and fluctuation of mind, or even from a kind of fullness of learning, that they fell upon this opinion - have certainly advanced reasons for it that are not to be despised- but yet they have neither started from true principles nor rested in the just conclusion, zeal and affectation having carried them much too far.

The more ancient of the Greeks (whose writings are lost) took up with better judgment a position between these two extremes - between the presumption of pronouncing on everything, and the despair of comprehending anything- and though frequently and bitterly complaining of the difficulty of inquiry and the obscurity of things, and like impatient horses champing at the bit, they did not the less follow up their object and engage with nature, thinking (it seems) that this very question - viz., whether or not anything can be known - was to be settled not by arguing, but by trying.

And yet they too, trusting entirely to the force of their understanding, applied no rule, but made everything turn upon hard thinking and perpetual working and exercise of the mind.


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